Estimating condition of trauma patients using EMergency TRAuma Score (EMTRAS)
The EMTRAS model estimates the seriousness of the condition of patients with trauma. The model is easy to use, using simple parameters that are available within 30 minutes. 
Research authors: Marcus R. Raum, Maarten W.N. Nijsten, Mathijs Vogelzang, Frank Schuring, Rolf Lefering, Bertil Bouillon, Dieter Rixen, Edmund A.M. Neugebauer, Henk J. ten Duis.
Details Custom formula Study characteristics Files & References
Model author
Model ID
Revision date
MeSH terms
  • Emergency Care
  • Multiple Trauma
  • Mortality
  • Model type
    Custom model (Conditional)
    Condition Formula

    Additional information

    The German Trauma Registry has been established by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie (German trauma society). As of September 2007, 87 German hospitals, 8 Austrian hospitals, 1 hospital in The Netherlands (Groningen), and 1 hospital in Switzerland participated. The registry prospectively records all severely injured patients who were admitted alive to the ER, with severe injury defined as an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of at least 16. The database contains more than 350 items from the scene of the accident up to long-term neurologic status. A total of 11,533 patients were to be used for developing the score and 3314 patients for validating it.

    Study Population

    Total population size: 11533
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    Females: {{ model.numberOfFemales }}

    Continuous characteristics

    Name Mean SD Unit
    Age 42.3 19.2 years
    Injury severity score 30.1 12.5 ISS
    Glasgow Coma Scale 10 4.9 GCS
    Base excess -3.3 5.4 mmol/l
    Prothrombin time 73.9 23.6 %
    Systolic blood pressure 119 32 mmHg
    Heart rate 91 24 bpm
    Hemoglobin saturation 97 6 %
    Respiratory rate 14.9 5.4 bpm
    Hemoglobin 11.0 3.2 g/dL
    Platelet count 190 82 x10^9/l
    APTT 38.8 24.1 sec
    Lactate 5.3 8.6 mmol/l

    Categorical characteristics

    Name Subset / Group Nr. of patients
    Gender Female 3068
    Male 8465
    Mortality Alive 9007
    Death 2526

    Related files

    Supporting Publications

    Estimated mortality risk based on EMTRAS score:

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    Estimated mortality risk based on EMTRAS score: %

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    Outcome stratification

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    Conditional information

    Result interpretation

    How this model should be used:
    The EMTRAS accurately predicts mortality. The determination of the EMTRAS will inform caregivers of the seriousness of patients with trauma at an early stage. Despite the fact that it only uses four items that can be determined early, it compared favorably with other (more complex) scores.

    Model performance:
    The EMTRAS demonstrated very good discrimination upon validation, with AUROCs of 0.94 (0.93-0.96) and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for external validation cohorts consisting of 3,001 and 1,417 patients, respectively. In the orginal publication by Raum et al,  an AUROC of 0.83 (0.79-0.87) was found in the validation cohort consisting of 3314 patients.


    1. Raum MR, Nijsten MW, Vogelzang M, et al. Emergency trauma score: an instrument for early estimation of trauma severity. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(6):1972-7.
    2. Joosse P, de Jong WJ, Reitsma JB, et al. External validation of the Emergency Trauma Score for early prediction of mortality in trauma patients. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(1):83-9.

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    Calculations alone should never dictate patient care, and are no substitute for professional judgement. See our full disclaimer.

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