Surgical Site Infection after instrumented thoracolumbar spine surgery in adults
The model comprises of an internally validated model predicting the risk of surgical site infaction after instrumented spine surgery. 
The model has not been externally validated yet. 
Research authors: Daniël M.C. Janssen, Sander M.J. van Kuijk, Boudewijn d'Aumerie, Paul Willems
Details Formula Study characteristics Files & References
Model author
Model ID
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MeSH terms
  • Surgical Site Infection
  • Model type
    Logistic regression (Calculation)
    No Formula defined yet
    Condition Formula

    Additional information

    Data of potential predictor variables were collected in 898 adult patients who underwent instrumented posterior fusion of the thoracolumbar spine. 
    Logistic regression was used to create the multivariable model which was internally validated using standard bootstrapping techniques. Results from the bootstrapping were used to penalized the model's regression coefficients. 

    Study Population

    Total population size: 898
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    Females: {{ model.numberOfFemales }}

    Continuous characteristics

    Name Mean SD Unit
    BMI 26.1 4.7 kg/m2
    Age 52.2 16.1 years
    SI score 10.3 5.9 score
    Blood loss 112 1201 mL
    Surgical time 248 100 minutes
    Number of levels fused 3.2 2.9 levels
    Amount of transfusion 279 675 mL
    Fraction of inspired oxygen 48.9 12 %
    Timing antibiotics 37 20 minutes

    Categorical characteristics

    Name Subset / Group Nr. of patients
    ASA ASA 1 310
    ASA 2 435
    ASA 3 150
    ASA 4 3
    Diagnosis Trauma 199
    Adult spinal deformity 113
    One- or two-level degenerative spinal disorder with neurologic compromise 379
    Malignancy 42
    Failed back surgery syndrome 96
    One- or two-level degenerative spinal disorder without neurologic compromise 61
    Spondylodiscitis 8
    Co-morbidity Cardiac pathology 49
    Diabetes 73
    Rheumatic disease 20
    None 756
    Previous operation No 645
    Yes 253
    Cage No 520
    Yes 378
    Dural tear No 807
    Yes 91
    Combined anterior approach No 873
    Yes 25
    Smoking No 613
    Yes 285
    Alcohol No 564
    Yes 334
    Blood transfusion No 617
    Yes 281
    Using NSAIDs preoperative No 456
    Yes 442

    Related files

    No related files available

    Supporting Publications

    Risk for surgical site infection is:

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    Risk for surgical site infection is:

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    Outcome stratification

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    Conditional information

    Result interpretation

    Internal validation of the model showed an AUC of 0.72. 

    On average, SSI occured in 6.7% of patients in the cohort used to develop this model. 

    Identification of patients at risk for postoperative infection allows for individualized patient risk assessment with better patient-specific counseling and may accelerate the implementation of multi-disciplinary strategies for the reduction of SSIs.

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    Calculations alone should never dictate patient care, and are no substitute for professional judgement. See our full disclaimer.

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