General anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7)
The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for general anxiety disorder and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
Research authors: Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B.
Details Formula Study characteristics Files & References
Model author
Model ID
Revision date
MeSH terms
  • Anxiety
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Questionnaires
  • Model type
    Linear model (Calculation)
    No Formula defined yet
    Condition Formula

    Additional information

    Patients were enrolled from November 2004 through June 2005 from a research network of 15 primary care sites located in 12 states (13 family practice, 2 internal medicine) administered centrally by Clinvest, Inc (Springfield, Mo). The purpose of the project's first phase (n = 2149) was to select the scale items and cutoff scores to be used for making a GAD diagnosis. The purpose of the second phase (n = 591) was to determine the scale's test-retest reliability. In all, 2982 subjects were approached and 2739 (91.9%) completed the study questionnaire with no or minimal missing data.

    Study Population

    Total population size: 2739
    Males: {{ model.numberOfMales }}
    Females: {{ model.numberOfFemales }}

    Continuous characteristics

    Name Mean SD Unit
    Age 47.4 15.5 years

    Categorical characteristics

    Name Subset / Group Nr. of patients
    Race White, non-Hispanic 2192
    African American 220
    Hispanic 247
    Other 80
    Marriage status Married 1753
    Divorced 356
    Never married 411
    Other 219
    Degree of school High school degree or equivalent 849
    Attended some college 1699
    General anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7)
    Refer to Intended Use for instructions before use
    Evidencio B.V., Irenesingel 19, 7481 GJ, Haaksbergen, the Netherlands

    General anxiety disorder-7 score:

    {{ resultSubheader }}

    {{ model.survival.PITTitle }}

    {{ model.survival.YNETitle }}

    Notes are only visible in the result download and will not be saved by Evidencio

    General anxiety disorder-7 score: points

    {{ resultSubheader }}
    {{ chart.title }}

    Outcome stratification

    Result interval {{ additionalResult.min }} to {{ additionalResult.max }}

    Conditional information

    Result interpretation

    Interpretation of results:

    • The 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity.
    • A cutoff of 10 points was found to result in optimal sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%) for the detection of anxiety disorder.
    • Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment.
    • A cut point of 15 or greater maximizes specificity and approximates a prevalence (9%) more in line with current epidemiologic estimates of GAD prevalence in primary care. However, sensitivity at this high cut point is low (48%).
    • In an independant validation study by Rulz et al (2011), the GAD-7 scale was shown to highly correlate not only with specific anxiety but also with disability measures.

    Note: The GAD-7 was developed and validated in a primary care setting. Further studies are needed to validate its utility in busy mental health settings and clinical research.

    {{ file.classification }}

    Calculations alone should never dictate patient care, and are no substitute for professional judgement. See our full disclaimer.

    Please enter a comment of rating
    Comments are visible to anyone

    Model feedback

    No feedback yet 1 Comment {{ model.comments.length }} Comments
    Not rated | On {{ comment.created_at }} {{ comment.user.username }} a no longer registered author wrote:

    Please sign in to enable Evidencio print features

    In order to use the Evidencio print features, you need to be logged in.
    If you don't have an Evidencio Community Account you can create your free personal account at:

    Printed results - Examples {{ new Date().toLocaleString() }}

    Evidencio Community Account Benefits

    With an Evidencio Community account you can:

    • Create and publish your own prediction models.
    • Share your prediction models with your colleagues, research group, organization or the world.
    • Review and provide feedback on models that have been shared with you.
    • Validate your models and validate models from other users.
    • Find models based on Title, Keyword, Author, Institute, or MeSH classification.
    • Use and save prediction models and their data.
    • Use patient specific protocols and guidelines based on sequential models and decision trees.
    • Stay up-to-date with new models in your field as they are published.
    • Create your own lists of favorite models and topics.
    A personal Evidencio account is free, with no strings attached! Join us and help create clarity, transparency, and efficiency in the creation, validation, and use of medical prediction models.

    Disclaimer: Calculations alone should never dictate patient care, and are no substitute for professional judgement.