ADNEX model: Benign tumor
The ADNEX model is a risk prediction model that can reliably distinguish between benign, borderline,stage I invasive, stage II-IV invasive, and secondary metastatic adnexal ovarian tumours. 

This model calculates the probability that a tumour is Benign. 

It is adviced to use the composite model since it provides more extensive prediction of the tumour stage. The composite can be found here:
Research authors: Ben van Calster, Kirsten van Hoorde, Lil Valentin, Antonia C. Testa, Daniela Fischerova, Caroline van Holsbeke, Luca Savelli, Dorella Franchi, Elisabeth Epstein, Jeroen Kaijser, Vanya van Belle, Artur Czekierdowski, Stefano Guerriero, Robert Fruscio, Chiara Lanzani, Felice Scala, Tom Bourne, Dirk Timmerman
Details Formula Study characteristics Files & References
Model author
Model ID
Revision date
MeSH terms
  • Gynecology
  • Surgical Oncology
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Model type
    Custom model (Conditional)
    Condition Formula

    Additional information

    Data on 5909 women were used.. The observed rate of malignancy varied between 22% and 66% in oncology centres and between 0% and 30% in other hospitals.

    Descriptive statistics shown are characteristics of the patients in the Benign group. Follow the linked reference to see all the patient characteristics of all the patients. 

    Study Population

    Total population size: 5909
    Males: {{ model.numberOfMales }}
    Females: {{ model.numberOfFemales }}

    Continuous characteristics

    Name LL Q1 Median Q3 UL Unit
    Age 32 42 54 years
    serum CA-125 11 18 39 U/mL
    Maximum diameter of lesion 45 63 87 mm
    Proportion solid tissue if present 20 42 100 mm

    Categorical characteristics

    Name Subset / Group Nr. of patients
    No of papillary projections: 0 3424
    1 333
    2 80
    3 66
    >3 77
    Acoustic shadows No 3304
    Yes 676
    Ascites No 3916
    Yes 64
    Family history of ovarian cancer No 3901
    Yes 79
    Solid tissue Absent 2658
    Present 1322
    Cyst locules ≤10 3781
    >10 199
    ADNEX model: Benign tumor
    Refer to Intended Use for instructions before use
    Evidencio B.V., Irenesingel 19, 7481 GJ, Haaksbergen, the Netherlands

    probability of benign ovarian tumour:

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    probability of benign ovarian tumour: %

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    Outcome stratification

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    Conditional information

    Result interpretation

    The model uses three clinical predictors (age, serum CA-125 level, type of centre) and six ultrasound predictors (maximal diameter of lesion, proportion of solid tissue, more than 10 cyst locules, number of papillary projections, acoustic shadows, and ascites).

    Serum CA-125 level and proportion of solid tissue were the strongest predictors.

    The ADNEX model has the potential to change management decisionsfor women with an adnexal tumour. This could impact considerably on the morbidity and mortality associated with adnexal pathology.

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    Calculations alone should never dictate patient care, and are no substitute for professional judgement. See our full disclaimer.

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